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Final Assignment

Women Portrayed Around the Globe

The way women are portrayed is much different in every country around the world. Women in the United States have the opportunity to get great jobs and can be interviewed by a journalist to have their quotes in newspapers or magazines. Women in Mali do not have as many rights as women in the U.S., but they are working to change that. According to this article called, “Empowering Women: Sweeping Media Changes in Coverage of African Women,” it states how women who work in the agricultural fields everyday were never interviewed by reporters. Now, the women of Mali created a program called, “Reporting on Agriculture and Women: Africa.” Even though the women of Mali did not have any rights with the media, they changed that around and created that program. Women in Mali were in need of freedom, and they received this by standing up for themselves and creating a program. While women in Mali are just starting to get their freedom slowly but surely, women in India are worried about their body type. Countries like India, Iran, and other ones are usually not as uptight as their body image as much as the United States. But now the article Body Image in Indian women as influenced by the Indian Media that statement wrong. “Several studies have found that women and girls in many parts of the world experience levels of body image disturbance and eating disorders that are similar to levels found in Western samples,” the article stated. Women in other countries are comparing themselves to the United States female body type which is not good. This article states how many females have eating disorders in the states. Why should Indian women compare themselves to the U.S when we have one of the most highest eating disorders as a country in the world? The body image in India is definitely changing, especially in their celebrities, or “Bollywood,” as they call it. Women in Bollywood were usually a little plump, but even now they are becoming slimmer over time, which is changing the perception of Indian women.

Advertising and television is also killing women around the globe and how they are perceived. Just like Bollywood in India and how that is affecting women’s body image, in the United States, it is the same problem. Advertising are killing women and girls slowly. In the youtube clip called Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising’s Image of Women,
it states how much women are tempted to look as thin and frail for men’s pleasure, because that is what men think is beautiful now a days. Advertisements are especially degrading to women, such as an advertisement for beer. The camera is focused on the woman’s legs instead of the beer bottle she is holding on beside her legs. Advertising puts women in the wrong light; only seen as objects. In Mexico, their advertising campaign is not about the sexual women advertising products- it is about making women look like they are degrading men by ruining their life. According to the article Mexican Ad Campaign Mock Country’s Gender Bias, they gave an example of a commercial where a boss fired his male employee due to his wife being pregnant. Another commercial was about a man complaining he couldn’t go to work because he had to take care of his sick daughter. These commercials are not fair at all for women. Why do they have to be bias when it comes to gender? It is the 20th century, both sexes should be represented fairly in the media. Lastly, an article from an Argentinean website states, “Women are, accordingly, expected not only to emulate, but to exhibit a model-like physique, airbrushed to perfection.” What kind of a quote is this? But it is so true about women in the media. Women have to be beautiful in every single magazine page, every single runway model show, and in the daily life. Argentina is obviously not as far away from the United States when it comes to exploiting women.

This is an Argentinean woman on the runway, depicting that this is the ideal woman for men. Because of models like these, men think this is the real "beauty." In reality, this is not the truth. How can we all be 5'10'' and 100 lbs.?

This is an Argentinean woman on the runway, depicting that this is the ideal woman for men. Because of models like these, men think this is the real “beauty.” In reality, this is not the truth. How can we all be 5’10” and 100 lbs.?

Magazines like these, especially in the United States, can make girls feel incompetent about their bodies. If girls start reading this at a young age, then they will start worrying about their body image throughout their teens and 20's and think that boys will only like them if they are that skinny.

Magazines like these, especially in the United States, can make girls feel incompetent about their bodies. If girls start reading this at a young age, then they will start worrying about their body image throughout their teens and 20’s and think that boys will only like them if they are that skinny.

Christmas Traditions Around the Globe

Christmas is a time for family, food, religion, and many other traditions. Around the world, different cultures celebrate this holiday. In the United States, homes are decorated with mistletoe, lights on the homes, images of Santa Clause, and more. Usually the extended family comes over on Christmas Day and  enjoys a feast of roasted turkey with vegetables and sauces. For dessert it is usually fruity pudding with brandy sauce and pumpkin pies. However, halfway across the globe in Israel, Christmas is celebrated in a different way. They celebrate their Christmas meal on Christmas Eve, but eat the large portion meal at lunchtime. Their food consists of turkey, spiced with pepper, cinnamon, and nutmeg stuffed with rice, meat, pine nuts, and almonds. It’s interesting to see that countries have different traditions when it comes to eating Christmas meals. The United States is not the birthplace of Jesus, but Israel is. Therefore, we have impromptu stages of what we think the actual birthplace of Jesus looked like. But in Israel, they set a blaze with flags and decorations the place where Jesus was born, Bethlehem. In the United States, masses on Christmas Eve, midnight masses, and Christmas day masses take place all over the country. But in Israel, it is a set mass time for the whole country. Galloping horsemen on Arabian horses come into the crowded church doorways and stand on the roofs of the churches for the dramatic annual mass. Israelis have a more realistic version of the mass of what they think really happened the night Jesus was born, while Americans go to any church mass they want too on the two days and are not as extreme with real life animals in the mass.

While India and the United States only celebrate Christmas within December 24 and the 25th, Mexico’s celebrations start nine days prior to Christmas Day, called Las Posados. During this event, people go to one house per night to tell the religious story of Mary and Joseph looking for a house to stay in. Many countries do not have games or events they do for Christmas. But in the U.S, they usually read the book The Night Before Christmas to the children of the family, and in Mexico, children hit pinatas. While people in Israel watch from their rooftops the procession of the animals and the parade into the church for the mass, in Mexico, all of the citizens are the parade. They make the grand procession to the church to lay gifts beside the manger and then they celebrate the midnight mass.

In majority of the world, people exchange presents for Christmas. However, in Cuba, the tradition has always been to not do gift exchanges for Christmas. Even though it is hard on the children, a country has to follow traditions, as the article says. In America, the art of giving presents away is due to the three wise men giving Frankincense, Gold, and Myrrh to the baby Jesus. American children have to know that they are not receiving gifts because they have been, “Naughty or Nice,” but because of the gifts the three wise men gave Jesus; it is all about tradition. Christmas traditions in Nicaragua are a few of the same in some countries. They celebrate Las Posadas, the nine day walking to people’s homes like the people in Mexico do. They also give their young small gifts like candy, little toys, and religious items. Nicaraguans also shoot off fireworks on Christmas Day while they are opening presents. For their family feast, they do not eat the typical turkey or ham as some countries do. They eat chicken tamales and homemade candies and desserts.

Children and adults go to one door per night to tell the people of Mexico about Mary and Joseph's adventure finding a house to live before they give birth to their son Jesus. I think the point of this is for people to be thankful for the roof over their head, especially during the holiday season.

Children and adults go to one door per night to tell the people of Mexico about Mary and Joseph’s adventure finding a house to live before they give birth to their son Jesus. I think the point of this is for people to be thankful for the roof over their head, especially during the holiday season.

Not many people outdo their homes during the Christmas season in the world, but Americans are known for going above and beyond for their festive Christmas lights. Santa does not come to Nicaragua to drop off gifts, but Americans make their house lit so Santa does not forget to stop at their house!

Not many people outdo their homes during the Christmas season in the world, but Americans are known for going above and beyond for their festive Christmas lights. Santa does not come to Cuba to drop off gifts, but Americans make their house lit so Santa does not forget to stop at their house!

I really enjoyed this blog posting because I got to find out more about how women are presented around the world differently in their own country, and I enjoyed learning about Christmas traditions around the globe as well. This was a great class, Professor Hilford. Stay cool and I’ll see you around!


For my final assignment, I would like to research in America and internationally how women are portrayed in the Media- Advertising, Print, Television, etc.

For America, there is the youtube clip called, “Killing Us Softly,” which is about the media killing women slowly by saying they have to stay bone thin to be considered beautiful in America.

This video is about how people change what the models look like.

Four international links:

1) Mali- Women were usually not talked too by reporters who were interviewing people working on agriculture. Now women are being broadcasted on the news. empowering-women-sweeping-media-changes-in-coverage-of-african-women.aspx

2) In India, beauty was usually plumpeness. But now that is changing due to the media and to American media. body-image-in-indian-women-as-pqid:1905558951

3) Here is another link in India on how women who are doctors lose their femininity in India. Also, in Bollywood, men are considered, “heroes” who tease or hit women. media-portrayal-of-women

4) Mexican and Argentinean women portrayed in the media-“‘In advertising, Women remain stupid,” or “Supermarket’s Winning Ad Declares ‘Argentinean Women Are Beautiful.'”mexican-ad-campaign-mocks-countrys-gender-bias#.TwHqhkLFUxc

Stanford Website Credibility

Afrik- News


1) The accuracy of the information on the site is pretty accurate. One of the articles did not have any quotes or sources linked to it, paraphrased in the article, or quoted in the article. However, all of the other ones had sources that said facts about what they were talking about in the article. Such as, “A BBC’s report says the 15-member Security Council is giving the impression to be prepared in sponsoring an international intervention force in the country; under the right conditions.”

2) The layout is pretty organized. At the top it has subheads for Sports, Weather, News, etc.  for more specific articles. Then it has one main article with a picture and below it more articles with links. It also has press releases to the right on the link and a weather forecast for Mali and advertisements. They credit themselves very well at the bottom in the About Us link. After you click on it, it says how Afrik.com is the leading site and many other facts about the website. I like how they lay everything out and give the audience facts about themselves right than and there.

3) It names off the columnists and their hobbies, but not their credentials. It does not state anything about the website’s service provider.

4) On Afrik’s website, it has a tab for Columnists. It names off all of the writers for the website, but it only mentions what they enjoy doing on their free time, not about their credentials, which makes the website less credible.

5) Yes, the website makes it easy for people to contact them. They have a link at the bottom of the website that says Contact Us which entails the address of where to mail comments into, their phone, fax, who the editor-in-chief is, and many more details. So they are quite credible when it comes to contacting them for questions.

6) The layout is pretty professional. It includes the colors blue, red, and white. The main article has a bigger font than the not as important ones. But they are all red colored which draws the attention towards them. The main article also has a picture with it, which draws attention to it even more. The layout is pretty good. It has the main articles on the left hand side and on the right is the Health Corner, the advertisements, the Opinion section, and more.

7) I think the website is pretty easy to manage. The user can scroll up and down on the right hand side. The most up-to-date article is the first one in the big font, which is easy to spot. But if people are looking for older news, they have to keep scrolling down.

8) The most up-to-date article was on November 1st, but that was not the main article with the big font. It would seem like they would put the most up-to-date article first, even if it’s not the hardest hitting news. The other articles are from the 30th of October. So as of now, November 2, they only had one article which was a day old. The other ones were two or more days old.

9) The ads are not pop up and are on the right hand side of the website. They are out of the way and are not seen too much. It did not make me think this site has no credibility anymore.

10) All of the typing was correct that I saw. Their English, grammar, etc. was very precise and clear and clean.

Evaluation: I think Arik-news. com deserves a 4 out of 5 scoring. The typography was great with colors that catches the audiences eye, the grammar and spelling were excellent, and the pictures catches the eye as well. The pictures were all very graphic and nice quality,  so it makes the audience want to click on them and see what the article has to do with it. The website in general was very easy to work. The articles and links on the left side, and the ads were on the right. However, what made them get a 4 on my scale was because it did not show any of the credentials the columnists have. It only described their personalities and what they enjoy to do. The articles seemed credible though because of the quotes and the sources they used in them. Overall, I though Arik-news was pretty reliant and an overall good layout of content, but just wondering what the columnists education was makes it a little fishy.



1) allAfrica shows a lot of references and sources in their articles, especially quotes. One of the stories was about Hilary Clinton and how she went to visit Mali. They put a quote in their of hers saying how Mali needs to work with the U.N. Putting quotes in articles, especially from well- known people like Mrs. Clinton, makes the article seem so much more credible. For the most part, the website has good quotes and sources for each article.

2) I could not find a Contact Us link on the page nor could I find an address to reach them at. There was no membership for the Chamber of Commerce nor a photo of the office.

3) The contributors to the newspaper are government controlled papers. It also said the site gets articles from publications and news agencies all over Africa. They showed a list of sites where they get the articles from, and they all seemed pretty credible to me.

4) The website names all of the publishers involved with writing for the allAfrica.com website, and lists their contact information and their website address. It did not say anything in the bios about their families or their hobbies.

5) On allAfrica.com, I could not find any Contact Us link or any phone numbers or address to contact them at.

6) I think the website could be a little more professional and organized. At the top there is a big blue space and on the left of it it says Mali in very fine print. I believe they could have made the font bigger for Mali to cover up more of the blue horizontal space. However, I think the colors are really cool. The orange background when it talks about Mali, and again red and blue and white like the other website. The typography is great. The layout is a little off. It only has two articles for Mali and then underneath it is full of articles from Mali and a little from other other countries. The layout is a little whack.

7) The site is easy to use. You can scroll up and down on the right and it has the typical Sports, Entertainment, News, etc. links at the top of the website. It could be easier to explore the site if the links for Mali were all at the top, and then it was all of the other countries links below it.

8) The content of my website has been updated October 31, and then it goes back all the way to October 25th. Writing and publishing the article could make the website seem more credible as well.

9) I think the website did a great job with advertisements. It was out of the way of the articles that people would be clicking on. The ads were on the right side and the articles were on the eft side.

10) I saw no typing errors or grammar errors. All in all, punctuation, and the spelling part to it was done very well.

Analysis: I would give allAfrica.com a 2 out of 5. I could not find any place to contact any of the writers. Nor could I find the bios of the columnists, which leads me to think where is their credibility? The advertisements looked good on the right side while the left side were full with articles. I disliked how their was only one article from October 31, two days a go. THey need a lot more up-to-date articles. The typography looked great at the top of the main page with Mali written across it. Also, the articles had very good resources, quotes, etc. in them, that were very reliable. Overall, I think this website deserves a 2 because the writing is good and its visually attractive, but there is just not enough resources to contact the paper and they do not have any columnists credentials on the paper.


1) The Jerusalem Press    http://www.jpost.com/VideoArticles/Video/Article.aspx?id=288908

2) The kind of content I am encountering is the way the two presidential candidates answered with how they would deal with Israel if Iran obtained nuclear weapons. The third debate was about foreign policy, so Israel came into the debate when Iran was talked about,  since Iran could threat Israel with a bomb at any time. Both candidates agreed they would, ” …stand by Israel if it was attacked by Iran.” The article also talked how the U.S. would react to Israel bombing Iran, but both candidates chose not to answer.

3) The information is complete for the country of Israel, since they want to know how the United States, their ally, would react if their foe, Iran, bombed or attacked them. So according to the Islamic people, yes, the information is complete. To others from outside of Israel, the information would not be complete because it did not mention how the candidates would respond to other countries about foreign policy. Syrians, to Malians, Lybians, Iraqi’s, etc. would feel left out since the article did not mention them, but all of these countries were talked about.

4) The source is from The Jerusalem Press, and their correspondent wrote the article. I believe the woman who wrote it because she is obviously trust worthy, since she is working for such a credible website. According to the website, it says The Jerusalem Press is Israel’s best-selling English daily and most read English website. After reading this, I knew the article was very credible. Also, I saw a fact check website on the last debate, and everything the candidates said on Israel and Iran were correct, which makes the correspondent’s article even more credible.

5) The evidence that is presented is that it is a very credible website, Jerusalem Press. And I’m not sure if the correspondent was at the debate since it says Washington at the beginning of the article. If she was, than the evidence is very credible. Even if she got the facts from watching it online or from a transcript of the debate, it would still be credible. The article was not very opinion based; it stated the facts of the debate and the opinions of the candidates. Never did it state the correspondents opinion on the debate.

6) An alternative explanation could be what the presidents reactions would be if Jerusalem’s neighboring countries started to bomb or threaten them with violence, since the Middle East is full of violence and terrorism. What could have been cool is if we heard the journalist’s opinion on what the candidates said about her country. Not to sway the reader one way or another, but just to hear an outside opinion on the matter.

7) Yes, I think I am learning what I need too. I do not follow politics, and this was the only presidential debate, besides the other two, that I have watched. I have only heard some information on the violence between Jerusalem and Iran gets bad, and this article really explained to me how intense it is through quotes from Obama and Romney, and some facts on the issues. Some online websites do not look official, but The Jerusalem Press gave me more knowledge on the issue than the two candidates.

1) Morocco World News   http://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2012/10/62035/obama-aggressive-in-foreign-policy-debate-with-romney/

2) The kind of content I encountered was how Obama was way more aggressive the final round of debates. Obama put, “…in an effort to blunt his opponent’s surge in an effort to blunt his opponent’s surge in the polls with two weeks left until Election Day.” The first round of debates, Obama did not refute claims from Romney, and looked timid. Two nights ago, the last round of debate, he was on fire, refuting Romney’s claims on foreign policy. He criticized the Republican party for missing ideas on the Middle East, and how Romney’s ideas on foreign policy to Obama were like the 1980’s again.

3) I think the information is not complete. It is a short article compared to the 90 minute real debate, and it only states the general ideas that were mentioned, and never went into detail about the foreign policy. Yes, the article talked about Romney’s and Obama’s opinions on how they would solve foreign policies, but the article did not go into exact detail on how they would solve it; only skimmed the surface. The article stated a sentence about how one candidate felt about the topic, added a direct quote from one of them, and that was it; that topic would be over in the article. The newspaper could have added more substance and opinion if anything after the quote.

4) The sources from this article is from The Morocco World News website. On their website, it says their vision is, “Speaking the truth, disseminating the truth, and raising the questions about the truth are the main principles guiding the work of Morocco World News.” When it comes to the article, their are two authors, and it seems like they are pretty credible sources. The Morocco World News website seems pretty credible themselves, which means their journalists are reliant as well.

5) The evidence that is presented is that it is a very credible website. Just like the quote I put in number 4, The Morocco World News website is known as being very reliant, truthful, and practicing good Journalism. They also put the candidates quotes in there and talked about them after. It seems like the two authors know what they are talking about. It all comes down to the website, and The Morocco World News is a very trustful source.

6) An alternative explanation could be how Romney was also aggressive in the last debate. The article is basically about Obama’s refutes to Romney’s claims. However, it was definitely not all Obama. It was still 50/50, but Obama was more outgoing than the other two debates. The Morocco World News are making Obama look better than Romney. If anything they should note than Obama was the weaker of the two in the first debate. Lastly, this article could have much more opinion. It’s always interesting to hear the journalist’s views on the debate.

7) I believe I am not learning what I need too. First off, the article was short for all of the information that was given to the audience during the 90 minute debate. Secondly, the article was all about Obama and how he did much better than Romney. Even if Obama was better, they should make the article equal about the two candidates. The writers didn’t include too much about Romney; it was how Obama did much better than him. The article included how The Cold War is going to repeat itself, according to Obama, and how Romney’s ideas are lacking on the Middle East. I wish they would include some of Romney’s strong points from the debate.

I think the Jerusalem Post was a very credible source. The article did a great job stating how the candidates would defend Israel if Iran attacked them. I wish the article talked more of what other issues were that were discussed in the debate, but it makes sense the article is strictly on Israel’s foreign policy with Iran since it is an Israeli paper. As Obama said in his debate, “I went to Yad Beshef (ph), the Holocaust museum there, to remind myself the nature of evil and why our bond with Israel will be unbreakable.” There you have it- proof that the article was correct on saying that the U.S. will always have Israel’s back. The objective was to inform Israel’s people of how the United States would react to threats from other countries or vice versa. So to Israelis, the writers covered the objective. If an outsider was reading the article, I think they would want more information of what else the two candidates said about the foreign policy and other countries. All in all, it seemed like the write used all of the information correctly from the debate.

I think The Morocco World News article was also a credible source. They used all of the correct and informative quotes from the debate that proves why Obama did a better job than Romney. Just like this quote says from the online transcript of the debate, “Nothing Governor Romney just said is true, starting with this notion of me apologizing.” Obama was quite a fighter the last debate, and it showed in the debate with his look of confidence in his appearance and his words. As the Morocco World News said, “Obama was the aggressor from the start.” He proved to the world who he really is the final debate, and this article said it all. However, they could have described the parts of the debate when Romney took control so it’s an equal article. But I liked how they did it to one side, since Romney controlled the first debate.

African Music

Even though Namibia, Kenya and Mali are all in the same region, there music has a few similarities and a few differences. After the Apartheid period, Kwaito music became famous in Namibia. This music was sung for “fun” and is known as “ghetto music.” Even though it has a negative connotation to people because it is “thug” sounding, it has helped build Namibia’s economy. The lyrics are shouted or blabbered, which is completely different than Mali’s music, which consists of women’s voices that have such a beautiful tone. While Kwaito’s lyrics are about going against politics and having fun, Wassoulou music is about women’s rights and what women desire the most- basically to be treated right.

Benga music is a slower rhythm compared to Wassoulou and Kwaito music. Wassoulou and Benga use the same classical instruents. Wassoulou uses Soku, which is a fiddle, kamalen n’gonly, which is a six string harp, and more. Kwaito uses   instruments for a sound of disco, a little bit of Jazz, and pop, almost lie a modern day system-digital music. Benga however has a much slower rhythm than the other two countries. Even though Africa is not a developed country, that does not mean the citizens of Africa are not going to be creative and artistic. Wassoulou music has multiple female singers who stand up for what they believe in. Benga music is  a more classy kind of genre for the adults, while Kwaito has music for the young spirits who enjoy dancing and disco. Africa is full of culture; pop culture of singing, that is.

Mali’s Media Freedom

Even though Mali is one of the world’s poorest countries, when it comes to Freedom of the Press, it is a free country, with 24 points. Mali’s constitution protects the citizens from free speech, and the broadcast and , print media in Mali is one of the freest in Africa. There are still a lot of rules regarding libel from a 1993 law, but no one has gotten in trouble for it since 2007. The media in Mali work with Mali government to make sure they are accountable for the people. Fore example, in 2009, the press asked the Malian government where the funds for a private telecommunications company went after officials were resisting on doing so.

Mali was under a one party dictatorship for many years, but turned into a multiparty democratic country in the early 1990s. 1992 was its first Presidential election, and has continued being for the most part a fair election every five years. Mali is a more open economy, but still struggles with it. Agriculture is the city’s main major activity, but the land is unproductive. Malians work overseas to bring back money to home. Agriculture is based off of foreign trade and bringing it back to Mali.

Mali was a French colony named Soudan. In 1959, Soudan and adjacent country Senegal were united to form the Mali Federation, but than became independent in 1960. Soudan left, and Mali became an independent republic.

Media: The news media in Mali is the most free of the Sub-Saharan Africa region. An independent press was the reason why Mali made a turnaround from a dictatorship to a thriving multiparty democracy in the 1990s. Malian Broadcast stations are also respected, with 50 of them in the country, broadcasting in local languages. 40 privately owned newspapers circulate in Mali. Newspapers must register with the MInistry of Communication. At times, keeping the financial status for newspapers is difficult. Only 2% of Mali had internet access in 2009. It is very respected that Mali has newspapers because it is a very poor country with a high illiteracy rate. 1991 was the first year radio went on the air.



-This article states Mali’s constitution protects its citizens from the right of free speech, and broadcast and print media. It also states not a lot of journalists have been hurt due to their work. Mali has a very diverse media environment, ranging from 50 privately owned newspapers to 300 FM radio stations.

-Maison de la Presse” opened up in 2011, which is government funded and provides journalists with journalism training and a place to work.


-This article is about an attack on freedom of the press from a group of armed soldiers that came to a private media house to tell them not to broadcast an interview with a Tuareg rebel leader which happened in June of this year.  The soldiers also complained about other programming which contained negative connotation regarding the Malian army.

-Reporters do not blame Africable for not showing MLNA’s, since they were threatened by armed soldiers.

Mali’s Newspaper

I could not find anything on Mali people’s opinion on the Presidential Debate, but I found another country in Africa, Zimbabwe, opinion on the debate.

The article said Zimbabwe enjoyed the debate so much that they want their own debate to show democracy in their country.


I searched the internet and could only find an article relating to the U.S. by how they help the Malian government, but not an article on the Presidential Debate.

The article is about how the U.S. promotes the restoration of Democratic rule in the Mali Government.


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